Open Studio: Recent Languages in the world
A pidgin /ˈpɪdʒɪn/, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside (but where there is no common language between the groups). A pidgin is not the native language of any speech community, but is instead learned as a second language.
Creole, is a stable natural language that develops from the simplifying and mixing of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full-fledged language. While the concept is similar to that of a mixed or hybrid language, a creole is often additionally defined as being highly simplified when compared to its parent languages. However, a creole is still complex enough that it has a consistent system of grammar, possesses a large stable vocabulary, and is acquired by children as their native language, all of which distinguishes a creole language from a pidgin.
Creole people are ethnic groups which originated during the colonial-era from racial mixing between Europeans and non-European peoples, known as creolisation.
1. Walpiri Light: English+Kriol+Walpiri
Linguist noticed school children speaking a mix of Kriol, Walpiri and English.
They developed their own usage of verbs. IMPORTANT for language differentiation.
The language, called Warlpiri rampaku, or Light Warlpiri, is spoken only by people under 35 in Lajamanu, an isolated village of about 700 people in Australia’s Northern Territory. In all, about 350 people speak the language as their native tongue.
The development of the language, Dr. O’Shannessy says, was a two-step process. It began with parents using baby talk with their children in a combination of the three languages. But then the children took that language as their native tongue by adding radical innovations to the syntax, especially in the use of verb structures, that are not present in any of the source languages.
Dr. O’Shannessy suggests that subtle forces may be at work. “I think that identity plays a role,” she said. “After children created the new system, it has since become a marker of their identity as being young Warlpiri from the Lajamanu Community.”
2. Jedek : Jahai+Aslian Languages
"They used words, phonemes and grammatical structures that are not used in Jahai. Some of these words suggested a link with other Aslian languages spoken far away in other parts of the Malay Peninsula."
But they're also edging towards extinction, as younger generations switch over to Malay.
Jedek speakers are highly multilingual, usually able to speak Jahai, and cohabiting and intermarrying with Jahai speakers. This is fairly common among the Semang Orang Asli, which are highly mobile and come into frequent contact with surrounding communities.
Most Semang, the researchers noted, can speak at least three languages fluently - two Aslian languages, and either Malay or Thai.
The community has almost no interpersonal violence, they actively encourage their children not to compete, and there are no courts or laws, the researchers said.
There are also no strict gender divisions or professions, with everyone learning a gamut of skills required for the hunter-gatherer community.
The new language, Koro, is spoken by about a thousand people in Arunachal Pradesh (map), a state for which little linguistic data exist, due to restrictive entry policies, according to the linguists behind the findings.
The linguists happened upon the language in 2008 while researching another two poorly known languages—Aka and Miji—which are spoken in one small district.
While listening to these tongues, the researchers detected a third language, Koro.
It's unknown how the Koro, who number between 800 and 1,200 people, came to live as a subtribe of the 10,000-person Aka tribe.
But it's clear that Koro differs greatly from Aka, the team found.
For instance, Koro's inventory of sounds is completely different, as is the way sounds combine to form words. Words and sentences are built differently in Koro too.
Though they lack a common language, Koro speakers and Aka speakers insist there is no difference between them, Harrison noted.
The coexistence of separate languages between two integrated groups that don't acknowledge an ethnic difference is very unusual, the Living Tongues Institute's Anderson noted.
Typically, the minority language in such an arrangement would lose ground to the majority language and in time die out—or the smaller group would maintain its own language by asserting a unique identity.
4. English, Malayalam, Arabic
7. International Auxiliary language
"For last year's words belong to last year's language And next year's words await another voice." — T.S. Eliot (Four Quartets)
Finger ink pads. Making prints as you play. Puzzle